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Identifying Wood: Accurate Results With Simple Tools

Identifying Wood: Accurate Results With Simple Tools

de R. Bruce Hoadley Taunton Press
Identifying Wood: Accurate Results With Simple Tools
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Identifying Wood: Accurate Results With Simple Tools
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Titre
Identifying Wood: Accurate Results With Simple Tools

Contenu

Résumé
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Sommaire
LIST OF TABLES
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. THE CLASSIFICATION AND NAMING OF WOODS 1
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms 2
Species 2
Scientific Names 2
Common Names 3
Trade Names 3

CHAPTER 2. THE STRUCTURE OF WOODY PLANTS: GROSS ANATOMICAL FEATURES 7
Tree Form and Growth 7
Wood Cells 7
Rays 8
Sapwood and Heartwood 9
Growth Rings 10
Viewing Features in a Sample 12
Transverse, Radial and Tangential Sections 12
Summary 13

CHAPTER 3. THE STRUCTURE OF WOODY PLANTS: SOFTWOODS 14
An Introduction to the Softwoods: Eastern White Pine 14
Tracheids and Texture 16
Spiral T hickenings 18
Spiral Checking 18
Pits and Pit Pairs 18
Resin Canals 20
Longitudinal Parenchyma 21
Rays 22
Summary 27


CHAPTER 4. THE STRUCTURE OF WOODY PLANTS: HARDWOODS 28
The Four Basic Cell Types 28
An Introduction to the Hardwoods: Red Oak 29
Choice of Viewing Surface and Instrument 29
Growth Rings 30
Vessel Elements 31
Vasicentric Tracheids 38
Fibers 39
Parenchyma 39
Rays 40

CHAPTER 5. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 46
Color 46
Luster 47
Tactile Properties 47
Odor 47
Density and Specific Gravity 47
Measuring Specific Gravity 49
Hardness 49
Fluorescence 52
Chemical Tests 52

CHAPTER 6. IRREGULARITIES AND SPECIAL FEATURES 54
Reaction Wood 54
Juvenile Wood 57
Pith 59
Limbs 59
Pitch and Pitch Pockets 60
Decay and Stain 60
Insect Damage 62
Figure 62

CHAPTER 7. EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUE 69
Cutting and Shaping Tools 70
Viewing Equipment 73
Technique 78

CHAPTER 8. TAKING SAMPLES AND KEEPING RECORDS 90
Sample Size 90
Guidelines for Taking Samples 91
Taking Samples from Historic Objects 92


CHAPTER 9. WOOD COLLECTIONS AND OTHER VISUAL REFERENCE MATERIALS 95
Personal Collections 95
Commercially Available Wood Sets 96
Prepared Slides 97
Institutional Wood Collections 98
Photographs 98


CHAPTER 10. HARDWOOD IDENTIFICATION 99
Initial Screening 99
Group I: Ring-Porous Hardwoods 100
Ring-Porous Subgroup 1-1: Chestnut and Oak 100
Ring-Porous Subgroup 1-2: Elm and Hackberry 104
Ring-Porous Subgroup 1-3: The Confusing Ring-Porous Woods 106
Ring-Porous Subgroup 1-4: Hickory and Pecan 112
Group II: Semi-Ring-Porous or Semi-Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods 114
Semi-Ring-Porous Subgroup II-I: Live Oak and Tanoak 114
Semi-Ring-Porous Subgroup 11-2: Persimmon 115
Semi-Ring-Porous Subgroup II-3: Walnut and Butternut 116
Group III: Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods 117
Diffuse-Porous Subgroup III-I: Beech and Sycamore 117
Diffuse-Porous Subgroup III-2: Hornbeam and Alder 118
Diffuse-Porous Subgroup III-3: The Confusing Diffuse-Porous Woods 120


CHAPTER 11. SOFTWOOD IDENTIFICATION 142
Initial Screening 142
Group I: The Pines 144
Subgroup 1-1: The Soft Pines 144
Subgroup 1-2: The Hard Pines 147
Group II: Douglas-Fir, Spruce and Larch 150
Group III: Softwoods Lacking Resin Canals 154
Subgroup III-I: Hemlock and Fir 156
Subgroup III-2: Cedars 159
Subgroup III-3: Baldcypress and Redwood 162
Subgroup III-4: Yew 163


CHAPTER 12 IDENTIFICATION OF TROPICAL WOODS 166

CHAPTER 13. WOOD IDENTIFICATION IN THE REAL WORLD 177
Commercial Lumber Questions 177
Structural Restoration 178
Historical Archaeology 178
Civil Engineering 178
Structural Engineering 178
Decorative Arts 179
Fine Arts 179
Prehistoric Archaeology 180
Wildlife Biology 180
Law 180
Just for Fun 181

APPENDIX I. ATYPICAL WOOD 183
APPENDIX II. IDENTIFYING DECAYED WOOD AND CHARCOAL 190
APPENDIX III. IDENTIFYING WOOD FIBERS 193
APPENDIX IV. CHEMICAL METHODS OF WOOD IDENTIFICATION 196
APPENDIX V. ORGANIZATIONS, INFORMATION AND MATERIALS 197
GLOSSARY 200
BIBLIOGRAPHY 212
INDEX 216
Sujets
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Détails

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Nombre de pages
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ISBN
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Année de parution
1990
Domaine public
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Prix public
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